The Turkish language, often called Anatolian Turkish or Istanbul Turkish, has about 65 million speakers in the world currently. According to Wikipedia, it is the native language of Turkey, but also spoken in Cyprus, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Greece, and Romania. Turkish is similar in many ways to other native languages from this region, such as Azerbaijani, and the languages are interchangeable to some degree.
Modern Standard Turkish is the most common dialect of the Turkish language and the one most spoken in Turkey and all over the world, but other main dialects include Rumelice, Cypriot Turkish, Edirne, Ege, Guneydogu, Orta Anadolu, Karadeniz, Trabzon, Laz, Kastamonu, Hemsinli, and Karamanlica. Each are specific to a certain region, and some have been integrated with other languages from surrounding areas to form local sub-dialects.
There are many loanwords in the Turkish languages, from languages such as Greek, English, Arabic, French, Persian, and Italian. They make up only a small percentage of the Turkish vocabulary in most cases, at maximum less than a tenth of the language’s total word count. Many of these languages also have Turkish words in their own respective vocabularies as well, and this number will continue to grow as the number of Turkish-speaking immigrants grows exponentially.